Advances in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in incidence and prevalence for more than 30 years. As hepatologists have become more adept at treating underlying liver disease and cirrhosis, patients with cirrhosis are living longer, and with longer duration of cirrhosis comes an increased risk of HCC development. Cirrhosis is the underlying disease in most patients with HCC, although around 10% of HCC occurs without cirrhosis, often in the setting of chronic hepatitis B infection. Unfortunately, even with improving treatments for viral hepatitis, cirrhosis has continued to increase worldwide, due to the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increasing alcoholic liver disease.